Monday, March 30, 2020

Understanding FTP Server along with functions, how to work and sample FTP Server applications

Before discussing about FTP Server We must first understand what is meant by FTP or that has the length of File Transfer Protocol. File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is the definition of a network protocol usually used for exchanging data or files interchangeably using an intermediary TCP connection.

Data exchange activities can be done in two directions, so that all connected can do the upload and download likewise otherwise. The process of exchanging data on FTP also involves two services namely FTP Server and FTP Client.

In this occasion the authors will focus more on the discussion on FTP Server only, covering the understanding, function and how the FTP Server works itself. As the name implies FTP Server is the definition of a Server or a parent device that is running an FTP service (data exchange or file). The existence of this FTP Server has a very vital position and should exist as a condition of FTP service occurrence.

FTP Server functions
As a very vital part of an FTP network, the functions of the FTP server are very important namely in order to provide data exchange services or files according to the request of the FTP Client as a party requesting an FTP connection.

The process of exchanging data can be done efficiently so that you won't waste too much – waste your time waiting for the process. Other functions that you can find in addition to providing data exchange services that provide also services implicit remote on the computer.

Also note that an FTP Server can work well on both active and passive connections. The intention of the active connection is the use of an FTP service that can involve outside parties, while using passive connection then the outside party that will request service will be directly exposed to the block. This connection settings can be adjusted as the user's preference as a party FTP Server in order to filter whether only the FTP Client involved or outside parties can also access the service.

How FTP Server Works
Because its function is very vital then in building an FTP network will surely always involve FTP Server. All users of the computer or the term FTP Client is required to have sufficient information regarding the FTP Server, including the username and password, and not to forget the address to access the FTP Server.

Actually setting this username and password can also be omitted or commonly called Anonymous Login (Guest OK). This is done to gain free access but for security reasons, it can use settings with a password. The use of this password is often also called Authentication Login. The FTP Server address is generally such as a domain address.

In general the work of the FTP Server should wait for the FTP Client request or request a connection. Once the two are connected then a bidirectional data exchange can be done, the client can send the data to the server and vice versa the server can also send the data to the client. This term is known as active and passive mode and was once we mentioned above. Basically both in active mode and passive client will start the connection by making a TCP control from Port N to FTP Server more precisely on port 21.

As part of the FTP delivery process, you also have to understand that there are 3 types of data delivery methods that are compressed, stream and block. By understanding these 3 things then in the use of FTP Server is believed to be more efficient. More details below:

On the Compressed method before the shipment of data is compressed first using algorithm methods such as Tun – length Encoding
The Stream method when sending the entire process only uses TCP so that the data can be directly delivered continuously – continuously and sustainably without going through a method or other process.
Last Block method, in this process the data sent will be directly divided into 3 groups namely block count, Block header and block data field. Once this division is done it will be forwarded to TCP for delivery.

FTP Server Applications
To start using FTP then the step to do first is to configure the FTP Server. But sometimes to shorten the time many users who prefer applications with the principle of work like FTP Server such as FileZilla Serve, PROFTPD and others. Those who struggle in the computer network world will surely not feel unfamiliar with those terms. You can see the following explanation:

FileZilla Server
At first the developers of this application present FileZilla Client, but on the next occasion and on the same project appears FileZilla Server. This Software is an FTP server with additional features performing FTP services over SSL/TLS. The source code on FileZilla Server can usually be found on the website but can also be encountered in other sources.

This one Software is open source and compatible with UNIX/LINUX and Windows operating systems. The advantage of this software is that it is very easy to use and is quite popular among IT and network technicians.

Similarly to FileZilla, this one software was originally created as an FTP client but on the next development appeared the Core FTP Server. The use of FTP services in this software by secure methods (via SSL, TLS, and SFTP).

That is the understanding of FTP Server along with functions and how FTP Server works. Also discussed about some of the most widely used FTP Server applications. Hopefully useful and easy to understand!

Identify Routing types based on multiple aspects

The term "routing" is known in the World Networking world. Routing is a process of sending data using a router tool that is capable of sending data packets over the Internet or network to its destination.

The routing process occurs on the third layer (i.e. the network layer, e.g. Internet Protocol) of the seven-layer OSI stack protocol.

In order to run the routing process, things to be aware of in the router are its destination address, the various routers involved in order to learn a network remote that was created, and the best router on each network.

Information about the router is stored in the routing table, which tells you how to find the network remote.

Types of Routing
The types of routing can be differentiated based on the nature of routing, routed and routing protocols and class in routing protocols. For more details below, it will be explained about the sharing of routing types:

A. Based on Nature Routing
1. Static Routing
It is a routing performed by the network Anministrator manually. Namely by means of input routing table settings that are sumbet from the router. That setting will depict the path of a package to the destination through which interfaces will be skipped.
  • On the router's CPU, there is no processing time (overhead).
  • Among routers there is no bandwidth used.
  • Security guarantees, as network administrators will select routing access settings on certain networks
  • Administrators should be able to understand internetwork on a system and router, in order to be able to connect and function properly.
  • When a network is added to the internetwork, the network administrator must be able to add routing tables to all routers that are connected manually.
  • On a computer network with large-scale static routing is not suitable for use.
2. Default Routing
Manual delivery of packets to the next router hop is a function of this routering. That is by adding a router to the destination network, the Remotenya control is not available in routering table. Used on a network that has one outbound path.

  • Simple configuration, because the administrator only need to enter one type of routing command only and all routes will be performed/skipped.
  • There is no routing needed, allowing all routers to accept the routing (which is not required). And the use of hardware increases and the work of the router becomes long.
  • 3. Dynamic Routing
  • The routing process is done by creating an automated data communication path, which is set according to the configuration. If topolodi changes occur in the network, then the new routing path will be created by the router automatically. Dynamic Routing is located on the network layer of the computer layer on the TCP/IP Protocol Suites. Dynamic routing also serves to locate the network and perform a routing table update on the router.
  • Only know the specific host address (which is connected to the router).
  • If there is a network connection, there is no need to rearrangement all routers.
  • Easier to use than static and default routing.
  • The router workload becomes heavy due to updates to the routing table at any given time.
  • The recognition speed and completeness of the routing table take a long time.
B. Based on Routed and Routing Protocol

1. Routed Protocol
It is the protocol on the router that is used to send user data from one network to another. Routed protocol brings data traffic such as file transfer, e-mail and other network traffic. Examples of routed protocols: IPX, IP, DECnet and AppleTalk.

2. Routing protocol
Being a protocol on a computer network, its function dynamically learns a network that is connected and Membrodcast, and learns the existing network path. If different router can exchange updates through routing protocol. For example BGP, EIGRP, RIP and OSPF.

  • Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
One type of protocol in data communication. Its ability to exchange routes, collect routes, determine the route to its destination location on a network. Equipped with algorithms. BGP is a category routing protocol EGP (Exterior Gateway Protocol).

  • Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)
It uses different cost balancing and advanced distance vector algorithms. The algorithm is a combination of link-state and distance vector and uses DUAL (Diffusing Update Algorithm) to calculate the shortest route.

  • Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
It is the protocol that regulates the routing table according to the connected router. And the router further gives the information to the connected router directly.

  • Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
The standard Routing is used on some network vendors and is described in RFC 2328. Equipped with a link-state algorithm or called Dijkstra/SPF algorithm.

The way Ptotokol works: The shortest path of a "tree" will be constructed and then filled with the best routes by the routing table generated from the "tree". OSPF only plays a role in supporting IP routing. Update routing will occur when there is a network topology change and is done floaded.

C. Class in Routing Protocol
1. Distance Vector
The protocols belonging to this class category will determine the best route to a network based on route mileage. Routing path/route with the most short hop distance to the intended network will be the best track option.

2. Link State
Another term is protocol shortest-path-first. The Tablen routing in the router has a unique function, which is a separate routing function table and becomes 3 tables. The first serves to record changes from direct connected networks. The second serves to define topologies on the entire internetwork. And the third serves for routing tables.

3. Hybrid
This latter protocol belongs to a class that uses aspects of both distance-vector and link-state routing protocols.

That's an explanation of the types of routing based on the nature of routing, routing protocols and Protocol classes used. Hopefully useful and easy to understand!

Know the characteristics of Firewall and its artist in computer network

Have you ever heard the term firewall? What kind of firewall character do you know? A Firewall is a combination of hardware and software.

Firewalls are useful for splitting a computer network into two or more parts so that the data contained therein remains safe. There is also a defining firewall as a security system that is on a network that is useful to protect the computer from various outside attacks that can come at any time.

Another use of firewalls is to restrict or control the person who is about to enter and access the data contained within a computer network. The Firewall also refers to a communication organizer that is performed by two networks that have the same character or type. Firewalls have their own features or characteristics. Then what kind of firewall characteristics? Here's the answer for you.

Firewall characteristics
Actually the characteristics of a firewall can be divided into two. The former is named as a personal firewall, and the second is named as a network firewall. Below we have presented important information about the two features or characteristics of the firewall.

1. Personal Firewall
A Personal firewall is a firewall that is utilized by individual or individuals who are utilized to protect their computer from various outside attacks that can attack and retrieve data.

Usually this firewall will be in the form of software or software that was previously bundled in the operating system. In addition, this firewall can also be an application that must be installed first before the user installed it to be used as a fortress.

Some of the benefits gained from the use of personal firewalls are that users can avoid spamming, spyware, or viruses that can enter anytime on the computer without our knowledge.

2. Network Firewall

As the name suggests, network firewall is a security that is used in a computer network. There are a wide range of network firewalls that are currently circulating out there. Some examples of the famous network firewalls include: ISA Server, IP Tables, Cisco ASA, Cisco PIX, and so on. All of these types of network firewalls basically have one of the same functions, which is to protect a computer network from various cyber crimes that can anytime go in and steal important data.

In addition to the firewall characteristics we already mentioned above. There are actually some characteristics of a firewall that you should also know so that you will understand the security system of this one.
  • Firewalls must be very resilient to various attacks coming from the outside. Therefore, the operating system that is used will be safer and also we do not have to worry about data or important information that is on the computer or laptop will be stolen.
  • Firewalls will create activities or activities that are already registered on the network. That is, there is a limitation on some activities that are potentially harmful to computer systems. The way to do this is to set the policy section in the configuration.
  • All activities undertaken which the activity is felt from the inside or outside the firewall must be passed first. That way, firewalls can restrict or even block against potentially harmful access to the network.
Firewall function
  • Firewalls are used to control or monitor existing data packets on the network. Later the firewall will perform surveillance and settings against the data packets and then filter them.
  • Used to check data packets through a private network.
  • Used to check against access whether suspicious or not.
Artistic Firewall
1. Dual-homed Host
The first firewall architecture is named as a dual-homed host architecture. That is, the architecture of this one must be at least 2 network interfaces.

To enable this architecture, the router that is in the computer network must be disabled first. In addition, later computer systems can communicate with dual-homed hosts as well as systems that are outside the firewall. However, these two systems can not do direct communication.

2. Screened Host
The second firewall architecture is named as screened host architecture. The function of the architecture of this one is to provide services originating from the host network to be then given to the local network or internally by using a router that is set apart. How to do security by using screened host is to utilize packet filtering.

Thus, any system originating from outside or external to access the system within or internally before you must ask permission first and must be directly connected to the bastion host. The Bastion host is the host used if the user wants to obtain a higher level of security. The Bastion host is located in the internal network.

3. Screened Subnet
The screened subnet architecture is the architecture of a firewall that we will also discuss. The function is to add a safety layer in addition to the screened host. How? The trick is to add a network of parameters to make it easier to isolate on the internal network.

This parimeter network will then isolate the bastion host thus making it indirectly in contact with the internal network. This type of architecture is also famous for the simplest because it has only two screening routers that all have been connected to the parameters network. The first router position is between the internal network and the parameters chain. While the second router is located between the external network or that is also named with the Internet and a network of parameters.

That is the explanation of the characteristics of firewalls and its architecture in the network that needs to be known. Hopefully useful and easy to understand!'

Know the definition of Telnet and its history, functions and how it works

Know the definition of Telnet and its history, functions and how it works
For some people may have never heard this term, a technology on the network that is commonly referred to as Telnet. The definition of Telnet or Telecommunication Network is a client-server protocol that can provide access to the computer remotely (Remote).

This Telnet device is commonly abbreviated to TN and can also be interpreted as a virtual or terminal emulation utilizing that protocol with the same purpose of accessing a remote computer.

In addition to login or access other computers Telnet is also commonly used to access various public services such as catalogs, libraries or other types of databases. In other words we can connect to each other and access between computers over the network. It is believed to be easier than giving the application to all users who want to access.

It is now a lot of emerging software-special software Remote such as Team Viewer and other-others. But still for its use requires an Internet connection and because it has a special function for the Remote from a further distance Team Viewer also requires the ID and Password of the target computer. In Telnet usage is more or less the same but without involving outside software (using the Command Line on the computer) as well as a smaller distance.

History of Telnet
Given its role inherent in computer use, the history of the appearance of Telnet (Telecommunication Network) does not contend with the popularity of computer use itself. This Telnet protocol was first introduced to the public by someone named Postel in 1980.

Because of this appearance there are also many developers who started to design sotware similar to Telnet but with different capacities and abilities. But the existence of Telnet still get a place of its own for users.

Although currently not as popular as the Internet but the existence of Telnet is already a part of the Internet and computer world since the emergence of the idea of connecting the computer through a network (network).

But for form and innovation already experienced many changes over time. As with most weak spots from the Internet, Telnet is still found to be a drawback that is prone to hacking or a breach. Therefore it needs better protection on the computers involved.

Telnet function
For the function of Telnet itself had a little mentioned previously that is to be able to access the computer remotely or the term Remote. This is because when using Telnet then the computer will be able to serve as a terminal from other computers that are on the Internet network. By using Telnet users can also log in to other computers as well as perform the activities in such computers like used directly.

In the Telnet user interface is quite friendly and simple so that in operation does not take a long time in understanding. As a user you just have to give commands remotely as do the same thing to your own computer's Command Line.

But please note that in Telnet this usage of NTLM Authentication is without being encrypted so as already described previously being prone to be compromised by sniffers to steal his password. In System Administrator should avoid using Telnet Server, but SSH on Linux to prevent the occurrence of password data theft.

To be able to use Telnet also keep in mind there are several conditions that need to be met from a computer device that is meremote and on the remote with two conditions must be connected (LAN or Wireless). Additionally the computer must also be connected on port 23 or in SSH 22. Once all conditions are met it can be installed Telnet.

How Telnet Works

Before discussing how Telnet works, first we know that Telnet uses 2 programs namely Client and Server. The process of working his Telnet will always involve these two programs. For each – the tasks of the Client and Server are as follows:

Client Tasks
  • Establish a TCP connection or Transfer Control Protocol with server parties
  • Receive input data or commands from user (user)
  • Input of incoming data will be reformatted first and changed in the form of standard format before it is finally sent to the server
  • Receiving output from the server party
Server Tasks
  • Provide information on network software regarding computer readiness in accepting connections
  • Receive input or request in the form of standard client's party
  • Executing an already signed command
  • Send output or result to client to further follow up by user
After understanding each – each task on the Client and Server then there should already be an overview of how Telnet works as a whole. User or user on the client first set up a TCP connection and type in the name (ID) and password in order to be connected with the server.

After verification and proved that the ID and password are entered correctly then the server will provide information to the network software that all parties are ready and connected.

The Software will bring up a prompt shell as the place to write commands to be executed. Once filled by the user then the command will be converted into standard format to then be sent to the server. The server receives orders and executes them and outputs them to the user via the terminal client. Thus the user or user can read from the screen whether the executed command is successful or not.

That's an explanation of the Telnet sense as well as function and how it works. Hopefully useful and easy to understand!

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5 Computer network components you should know

If you are talking about the components of a computer network, then we will discuss what components are used to form a computer network.

A computer network is a set of computers interconnected between one and another through a network. There are many types of networks that we know of which each of these networks have their own functions and usability.

The purpose of this computer network to make it easier to do data transfer transaction where we only need to send through the network so that later can get to the computer that we are aiming.

Computer network components
In creating a computer network, you need some of the components we'll describe below.

1. PC or Personal components
The first computer network component is the computer itself. If you want to create a computer network then it is not possible that we do not need a computer because this device is the basic device that must be prepared for the first time.

It's not necessarily a PC, you can use netbooks, notebooks, as well as laptops. This device will later be used as a data transaction from computer one to computer. On the computer, there are at least three important parts that must be considered:

A. Hardware or hardware
Hardware is a collection of devices that we can physically see and feel. So you can hold and feel this hardware. The hardware itself is divided into 4 parts, among others:
  • Hardware as input is keyboard, mouse, joystick, and so on.
  • Processor devices such as processors, RAM, motherboards.
  • Output devices or outputs such as monitors, speakers, printers, etc.
  • Peripheral devices or that are named as enhancements, such as USB Flash, TV Tuner, modem, and so on.
B. Software or software
Software or software that is named as a piece of software is visible to the eye but can not be felt physically. That is, you will not be able to hold or feel the software. The software itself is also divided into several parts, namely:
  • Operating systems such as Windows, Linux, DOS, etc.
  • Application software, such as multimedia applications, photo applications, video editing applications, and so on.
C. Brainware or Users
Brainware or also named as a user is someone who runs and operates computer devices, including hardware and software. Users can obtain various information that is desired through input and information will be issued through the output.

2. NIC or Network Interface Card
The second computer network component is NIC or is often named as the network card. This card is also sometimes named as an adapter card that will later be installed to the computer so that he can connect to the computer network. This NIC will later have an important role in connecting between computers that one with the other computer on the computer network itself.

Usually, this NIC is already automatically installed in the laptop. But if it turns out your computer or laptop may not have it, then you should buy it at the computer store and install it immediately.

3. Transmission Media
From the name, you can already know that this transmission media will later be used as a bridge to connect between computers in the network. There are at least two types of transmission media that we still use today.

A. Wired Network
Wired network is a computer network that still utilizes cable as its transmission media. Generally, the cable used is UTP or Unshield twisted pair made of copper with no protector in the cable. This cable can be purchased at the computer store by adjusting how long the computer network you are going to create.

B. Wireless Network
Wireless Network is a computer network that does not use cables but instead utilizes a signal. There are many types of radio signals that can be used. The signal will later have its own frequencies such as 2.4 GHz, 5.5 GHz, and others. Meanwhile, the data contained in a network can be transmitted using 3 media, including:

1. Cooper Media or Copper media
Cooper Media is a transmission media whose material is made of copper. Most people name this media as a data cable that is normally plugged into a computer or laptop to send or receive data. This form of Cooper Media is an electrical signal with a current and voltage that is digital.

2. Optical media or also known as optical media
This media is a transmission media that uses optical cables. The Media is made of glass and smooth textured plastics. Its function is to transmit light signals between locations at very high speeds.

3. Wireless media or media that does not require cables
This Media in its use does not require cables. Its use is more effective than those that still use cables. It functions to transmit data through radio signals.

Cable Type for Network
Then what kind of cable can be used in the network? It should be understood that not all cables can be used as connecting media between one computer and another. Some of the cables we will explain below:

A. Coaxial cable
A coaxial cable is a type of cable for the TV antenna and sometimes also named as a BNC cable or Beyonet Nour Connector. A coaxial cable is included in the most frequently used cables in the computer network.

B. Twisted Pair
This cable is divided into two namely UTP and STP cables. Each cable has its own strengths and disadvantages. Each of these cables also has its own function.

C. Optical Media
Optical Media is also usually called as fiber optic which has very small size. Data transmitted through this fibre optic cable includes data that is in light form such as infrared or laser.

D. Network Device
The component of the computer network is the network device in which it includes the Hub, Switch, Router, Repeater, and so on. These tools are later used as the center or place connected to the entire computer network.

5. NOS 
The last component of the computer network is NOS or Network Operating System which is indeed a network specific operating system. Some of them are Mac OS X Server, Windows Server, Linux Server, and others. This OS will usually be diisntall to the server computer that is the controller of the entire client computer.

Explanation of computer network components and functions that we need to know in the network world. Hopefully useful and easy to understand!

Friday, March 27, 2020

Right and standard compliant Straight and Crossover cable (UTP cable)

In building a computer network, you will know the term UTP cable. Then, what is the UTP cable? UTP or Unshielded Twisted Pair is a type of data cable that is often used to connect between the same device or different devices, such as computers with computers, computers with other devices (routers, switches, printers, servers, access points and hubs).

Most people use UTP cables only to limit building a LAN (Local Area Network) network. The price is relatively cheap and easy to obtain, making this UTP cable often used. However, according to the name of the UTP cable is not equipped with a protective (Unshielded) so that the cable is not resistant to the presence of electromagnetic interference.

UTP cables consist of cables that are arranged in between. Basically, the cables that will be compiled in number 8 with different color arrangement, where the cable is wrapped into 4 pairs. There are two models that are making UTP cable, straight and crossover. Do you know what is a straight or crossover model in the preparation of UTP cables?

In this article, it will be explained and discussed in detail about the understanding of straight cables and straight wiring arrangement. Discussed also about the understanding of crossover cables and crossover cable arrangement. Immediately, you can read more about this.

Standard UTP Cable
In general, there is an international standard used in the color sequence of UTP cable is TIA/EIA 568A and TIA/EIA 568B.

By doing so, the straight cable is a cable color drafting technique using the same color sequence at both ends of the UTP cable. If you use the standard arrangement of TIA/EIA 568A at the first tip then the second tip also uses the TIA/EIA 568A standard as well. Likewise, when you use the standard TIA/EIA 568B (the most commonly used) the second cable end should also use the same standard arrangement.

Straight wiring Arrangement
If you want to make a type of straight cable, then the first thing to be considered is the color arrangement of the end of the cable with the other must use the same color sequence. Consider the picture below.
Usually, to connect between computer devices using the RJ-45 connector as a link. The RJ-45 connector has 8 pins inside. Thus, to create a straight type of cable then you have to insert each of the cables that you have stacked into the RJ-45 connector pin according to your desired standard.

Simply put, pin 1 on one end of the cable will be connected to pin 1 at the other end of the cable. So on until pin 8.

Crossover wiring Arrangement
Unlike the straight cable, the crossover cable means cable color drafting technique using a different sequence between the first cable end and the second. For example, if you are using the standard TIA/EIA 568B at the first end, then the second tip uses the EIA/TIA 568A standard.

To create a type of crossover cable, then you should also pay attention to the different color sequences between the first cable ends with the second cable end. Consider the image below to better understand the order of crossover cables. More details, see the picture below:
Difference of Straight and Crossover cables
From the discussion above, it is obvious understanding differences between the types of straight cables and crossover cables. In addition, there are a few differences that will be described below.

A. Based on color arrangement

As discussed earlier that the wiring arrangement of straight and crossover is slightly different. If on a straight cable both ends of the cable (connector) has the same color arrangement. Different on the crossover cable The two ends have a different color arrangement.

B. by function

1. Basically, a straight cable is used to connect two different devices.
Examples of Use:

  • Connecting a computer with Switch
  • Connecting switches with routers
  • Connecting hubs with routers
  • Connecting the Router with Access Point
  • Connecting switches with Access Point
  • Connecting the Modem with Switch

2. While the crossover cable is used to connect two devices the same.
Examples of Use:

  • Connecting computers with Computers
  • Connecting switches with Switches
  • Connecting hubs with hubs
  • Connecting routers with routers

How to make a Straight or Crossover cable?
In general, to make a network cable using UTP cable requires equipment and materials, such as UTP cable, Crimping Tools, RJ-45 connector, and RJ-45 LAN Tester. The following will be explained regarding the cable making steps of either a straight or crossover model.
  1. Cut each end of the cable, about 2 cm.
  2. Open the cable and then straighten the cable. Then set the cable arrangement as per standard. If you are going to create a straight type cable then both ends use the same standard order, if the crossover then both ends use a different standard order at each end.
  3. Once sorted, cut the cable so that the 8 wires are the same size.
  4. When the wires have been flat, perform crimping activities using Crimping Tools. Crimping means to ensure that the cable is inserted into the pin in the RJ-45 connector in accordance with the rules. Then clip the cable that has been inserted into the RJ-45 connector using Crimping Tools until the sound is heard.
  5. Do stage 2-4 for the other end of the cable.
  6. The final step is to check if the cables you have crimping successfully or not by using LAN Tester. How to insert the cable end into each of the ports available in LAN Tester. Then turn on the LAN Tester. If the LED light in LAN Tester is on, then you have successfully made a straight or crossover cable. If not lit, there is a possibility that the wiring arrangement is not suitable and the cables inserted in the RJ-45 connector do not fit.
That's a discussion about straight and crossover wiring and the difference between the two. Thus, the above article can help you to understand the color sequence contained in the UTP cable so that you can create a cable with a type of straight or crossover to connect the device in a network.

Understanding IP Address and function and class IP Address on computer network

For those who are concentrating on the field of computer networks or the Internet world will surely often hear and interact with the name IP Address. Computer network is a form of telecommunications network connected to several computers with the purpose of interacting and mutual exchange – exchanging data.

Generally all computer networks are designed with a client-server model. There are computers that serve as servers and some computers that act as clients or members. The use of IP Address in this case is as the identity of each-each computer that acts as a server or as a client. Similarly, in Internet activity, the use of IP Address is also the naming or identity of each – the host computer.

At the base of his IP Address is a combination of numbers in certain digits and separated by dots. To be able to determine the use of IP Address on each computer, of course also need the fundamentals of knowledge and deep understanding.

Although it reads the guidelines but without any understanding of course everyone will have trouble implementing IP Address. Therefore we will describe and explain in detail the understanding of IP Address and its functions to you. In addition, you will also know the classes in the IP Address.

Understanding IP Address
Essentially the Internet Protocol Address or commonly called IP Address is a binary line of numbers compiled with a range between 32 bits and 128 bits and is used as the identification address on each computer. In computer network science the use of numbers with 32 bits is used in the IP Address specific version of IPv4 while for numbers 128 bits for which the IPv6 version.
In the presence of an IPv6 version to anticipate if IPv4 has run out of capacity considering the technological advances that certainly encourage also the reduced supply of IP Address for the whole world. The higher bits on your computer's IP Address will certainly provide a faster connection of course.

In addition to the IP Address, in the computer network also known term DNS Server and DHCP Server. The three terms play an important role to support the use of your computer in a network system. Normally, the DHCP Server client will automatically receive IP Address addressing. As for the DNS Server, the use of IP Address to set it only on Ipv4.

IP Address function
After understanding the definition and how IP Address works you should also know the main function. There are 2 special functions why you should use IP Address on a network computer system as a host identification tool and as the address of the network location on each computer. In detail will be explained below:

1. IP Address as host identification tool
As we explained earlier, if the computer is like a human, then IP Address will be used as a name or identity especially in all activities related to the network. On the computer network system known terms host and the use of IP Address is intended to identify each – each host. Of course there should be no host that has the same IP Address.

2. IP Address as network location address
In addition to identification of host IP Address use is also intended as network location address. The intention is the naming IP Address can provide information from the country where the computer or host is meant. This function is usually run on the activity using the Internet because the IP Address data can get to the right computer. To check IP Address can go through network settings or use a Web browser.

Class on IP Address
As already explained that IP Address consists of two versions namely IPv4 and IPv6. But you should know that in the IPv4 version alone is available at least approximately 4,294,967,296 hosts around the world. With very much like that, it will certainly be difficult in terms of selection and use. Therefore, it is necessary to type IP Address into several classes.
Basically, IP Address consists of 4 octet, e.g., where 192 is the first octet, 168 octer second and so on. The value of 1 octet is a maximum of 255. To classify the IP Address that much, it is formed 5 classes and consists of A class A to E class (class D and E very rarely used). Each class plays an important role in computer networking systems. In addition, the term Network ID (Net ID) and Host ID are identical with the use of IP Address (except IP Address class D and E).

  1. For IP Address A class A is commonly used on large-scale network systems. The first Bit starts with the number 0. For long Network ID is 1 octet while the Host ID length is 3 octet. The number of hosts in class A can reach 16,777,216.
  2. For IP Address class B is usually more often used on large and medium scale network system with capacity to reach 65,536 host worldwide. The length of the Network ID in this class is 2 octet whereas the length of Host ID 2 octet.
  3. For IP Address class C is used in small scale network system with 256 host capacity only. For long Network ID is 3 octet while the length of Host ID is 1 octet.
  4. For IP Address class D is used specifically for multicasting purposes, where the initial IP address (host) is to 239,255,255,255. In multicasting also do not recognize the term Network ID and Host ID.
  5. For IP Address class E is reserved only for experimental purposes only, where the initial IP address (host) is to 255,255,255,255. Similarly to class D, IP Address class E also does not recognize the term Network ID and Host ID.

That is the article about the understanding of IP address and the function and class of IP address that you should know. With the article above, hopefully you become more understanding of what is IP address, usefulness for what and how many classes in the IP address.

Proxy definition and function and how Proxy works in computer network

When someone through their personal computer using a proxy Internet network is trying to surf the internet, the user's computer identity (IP address) will be visible to the website requested.

Sometimes, if you are not careful, this IP address can be misused by others, such as to spread viruses, malware, or even retrieve personal user data such as email passwords, bank passwords, and so on.

To prevent the user's IP address from being clearly visible, we can use a proxy that bridges the personal computer with the Internet network. The following will be explained in more detail regarding proxy definitions, proxy functions, proxy types, and how it works.

Proxy definitions
Simply put, a proxy is a computer server that serves to forward user requests to other servers on the Internet. In the same time, this proxy server is a connection between personal computer and Internet network. Proxy itself has several kinds of usability, among others:

  1. To hide the IP address of the client/user's computer, so anyone can surf anonymously without leaving a trace of the IP address on the Web page visited. For example, if a client visits Google through a proxy server, then Google will see that visiting it is a proxy server, not the client, so that Google can also not track the user's client position.
  2. Surf faster on the Internet. All requests from client computers will reach the proxy server first. Then the proxy will check if the Web page that the user visited already has caching stored or not. If there is, then the client will get feedback from the data caching, so that the client can surf faster on the Internet.
  3. To block an unwanted site. Suppose for the Internet network in offices, so that workers in the Office do not utilize the Internet to play social media and watch, then some sites can be included in the blacklist proxy so that it is not accessible through the office network.

Proxy function

There are several proxy functions that need to be understood, including connecting sharing, filtering, and caching. More details about the three proxy functions will be explained in the following points.

1. Connecting Sharing
Proxy function for connecting and sharing. That is, with a proxy, then an IP address of the user's computer can be connected to another IP address, can also be an intermediary to share data between two IP addresses.
In the function of connecting sharing, a proxy can be a gateway that restricts local networks and outside networks. With the connection Sharing function, a computer is very likely to connect from a local network to the Internet using the gate connection.

2. Filtering
Some types of proxies also come with a firewall that functions to filter out unwanted IP addresses, even blocking them from preventing damage to the computer.

For filtering function, the proxy works on the application layer, to protect the local network from a wide range of attacks and possible interference from the outside network. To reject a specific IP address at a time, computer users can configure the proxy.

3. Caching
Caching means that the process for a proxy stores data that users have already requested while browsing the Internet. For example, when we open a website that contains images and objects in it, then the image data and the object will be stored in the cached form. The existence of data storage of a web on a proxy makes users faster to access the website, especially if the previous proxy users already have access request for the website.

Types of proxies
Based on its characteristics, at least the types of proxies can be divided into four kinds, namely Anonymous Proxy, High Anonymity Proxy, Transparent Proxy and Reverse Proxy. Here is an explanation of these types of proxies.

  1. Anonymous proxies/proxy: This type of proxy is a proxy type that will notify the user's computer information. When a user requests a website, the website will know the proxy IP address used by the user, but does not know the user's personal IP address. Because the website server can not access the user's IP address, then the communication between the user and proxy server is encrypted so that security is also assured.
  2. High Anonymity Proxy: This type of proxy does not identify itself as a proxy server, so it does not provide the original IP address. This type of proxy uses the REMOTE_ADDR header with an IP address to the proxy server, so that from the user it will be visible that its server proxy serves as the client.
  3. Transparent Proxy/Transparent Proxy: A simple example of a transparent proxy is a server that resumes the user's request to the desired source without revealing the user's computer information. This transparent Proxy is pretty much applied in office, where every IP address that performs request visible by the server through HTTP headers.
  4. Reverse Proxy: This type of proxy is generally used to provide a way over various user requests from the Internet, through an isolated firewall and a private network. Reverse proxies are widely used to prevent clients on the Internet from connecting with unmonitored access, which involves content sensitive data from a closed network such as an intranet. If caching on reverse proxy is enabled, network traffic can also be lowered.

How proxies work
When a computer user uses a proxy service, that user can then request data or documents that are contained in the Internet (public server).

The proxy then forwards this request to the Internet network, as if it were not the requesting user, but rather a proxy server. Then once the proxy manages to find what the user needs, the proxy will respond to the user.

That's the explanation of proxy definitions, proxy functions, proxy types and how it works. Of course using a proxy or not returning to your decision, but if a computer network consists of many clients such as in offices or companies and do not want the internet to be used for things that do not support productivity, then there Good to consider installing a proxy.